Iditarod 2023: Co-founder's Grandson Wins

March 16, 2023
Iditarod 2023 winner Ryan Redington Ryan Redington won the 2023 Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race, finishing in 8 days, 21 hours, 12 minutes, and 58 seconds. It was a close finish, as Redington edged out 2019 winner Pete Kaiser by an hour and 24 minutes. Coming in third was Richie Diehl, a further hour behind. Redington mushed on ahead when Kaiser rested at the Elim checkpoint, putting him in to the next checkpoint, White Mountain, with a four-hour lead. In the end, it was more than enough. Redington's grandfather Joe Redington was one of the founders of the iconic adventure race.

Iditarod 2023: Teacher on the Trail
Julianne Westrich of Rochester, N.Y., is the 2023 Iditarod Teacher on the Trail. She will travel with the contestants and report from the trail, conducting interviews and then posting updates on the Iditarod website. She is the Kindergarten–34d Grade librarian in the West Irondequoit School District in Rochester, N.Y. Before that, she taught preschool at the Rochester Museum and Science Center. She routinely presents the Iditarod as a topic of study for her students.


Clara Barton and the Red Cross
The American Red Cross, a symbol of medical help known the world over, was the creation of a shy farm girl from Massachusetts, Clara Barton. It is perhaps one of medical history's greatest examples of "filling a need."

Elizabeth Blackwell: America's First Female Doctor
Elizabeth Blackwell became a doctor at a time when women weren't let into college, let alone into medical school. She persevered, graduated, started practicing medicine, and became a hero to women across America. She did this in the 19th Century.


Patrick Henry: Voice of Freedom
Patrick Henry was one of the leading lights of the American Revolution, a voice that would not be silenced until Americans were free and could govern themselves.

Samuel Adams: Ringleader of the American Revolution
Described as a firebrand, a revolutionary, and a patriot, the young Adams was perhaps the most vocal of his generation to demand independence from Great Britain. He believed in the higher cause of independence, and he didn't often let laws that he thought unjust stand in his way.

Benjamin Franklin: America's Renaissance Man
Benjamin Franklin was one of the most famous people of his generation, his country, and his country’s history. He was as close as Colonial America came to having a Renaissance man.

John Hancock: The Money Behind the Revolution
John Hancock is perhaps best known for his very large signature on the Declaration of Independence. However, he was much more important to the American Revolution and the Revolutionary War as a businessman who had large sums of money at his disposal and used that money to support the American cause.

The Boston Tea Party
What caused Americans to get so upset about tea? Find out in this easy-to-read article.


Patrick Henry Utters Famous Line
One of the most famous speeches in American colonial history was given on March 23, 1755. This was the famous speech of Patrick Henry, noted lawyer and revolutionary. He spoke to his fellow Virginians at St. John's Church in Richmond, urging them to take up arms in self-defense. Great Britain had gone too far in imposing taxes and other restrictions on Americans, and it was time for the colonists to defend themselves. He ended this famous speech with the words "I know now what course others may take; but as for me, give me liberty or give me death."

Robert the Bruce: Hero of Scotland
Robert the Bruce is remembered as helping bring independence to Scotland. His 14th-Century story is more complicated than that. The death of a popular Scottish monarch (King Alexander III) and the subsequent death of his designated heir created a power vacuum, the filling of which eventually involved the King of England, Edward I. In the midst of a struggle for supremacy and the insurgency led by freedom fighter William Wallace, Bruce found himself named a Guardian of Scotland. After the death of both Wallace and John Comyn, another powerful Scottish noble, Bruce proclaimed himself King of Scotland and was recognized by others, including the pope, who crowned Bruce on March 25, 1306. England, of course, had other ideas and launched an army to protest. Bruce rallied his forces and achieved a great victory, in 1314 at the Battle of Bannockburn.



The Development of Austria Before Habsburg Rule
Like many other areas of Europe, what is now Austria has a past that includes Celtic and Roman influences. Other pre-Habsburg rulers included the Holy Roman Empire and a handful of Babenbergs.

Leopold I, Margrave of Austria
Leopold the

Leopold I: Margrave of Austria
Leopold the Illustrious (left) was the first Margrave of Austria and the progenitor of the Babenberg dynasty that ruled over Austria for many decades.

Henry I: Margrave of Austria
Henry I was the second Margrave of Austria. He ruled in the last part of the 10th Century and into the early 11th Century.

Adalbert: Margrave of Austria
Adalbert followed in his father's and brother's footsteps by extending the borders of the realm.

Ernest: Margrave of Austria
Ernest was the fourth Margrave of Austria. He ruled for two decades in the 11th Century and both fought against and lent support to the Holy Roman Empire.

Leopold II: Margrave of Austria
Leopold II was the fifth Margrave of Austria. He ruled for two decades in the late 11th Century and continued his father's struggle against the Holy Roman Empire.

Leopold III: Margrave of Austria
Leopold III was the sixth Margrave of Austria. He ruled for more than four decades in the late 11th Century and early 12th Century. He is also known for establishing a number of monasteries.

Leopold IV: Margrave of Austria
Leopold III was the seventh Margrave of Austria. He ruled for just a few years and had a relatively peaceful reign.

Henry II: Margrave of Austria, Duke of Austria
Henry II was the eighth and last Margrave of Austria and the first Duke of Austria. He ruled in that capacity for 15 years and then served as Duke of Austria for 21 years after that. He also fought in the Second Crusade.

Leopold V: Duke of Austria
Leopold V was the second Duke of Austria. He reigned for nearly two decades near the end of the 12th Century. He also fought in the Third Crusade and later kidnapped England's King Richard I, an act that shaped the histories of England and France for generation.

Frederick I: Duke of Austria
Frederick I was the third Duke of Austria, ruling for three short years at the end of the 12th Century. He died on Crusade, in the Holy Land.

Leopold VI: Duke of Austria
Leopold VI was the fourth Duke of Austria, ruling for more than three decades at the beginning of the 13th Century. He fought in the Fifth Crusade

Frederick II: Duke of Austria
Frederick II was the fifth and last pre-Habsburg Duke of Austria, ruling for more than three decades in the first half of the 13th Century. One of his signal achievements was a victory over the feared Mongols.

The Babenberg Succession Conflict
In the ruling history of Austria, the bridge between the House of Babenberg and the House of Habsburg was a succession controversy.

Habsburg coat of arms

Rudolf I
The King of Germany won a power struggle and then initiated Habsburg rule of Austria, cementing immediate succession by installing his sons as leaders of the largest provinces.

Albert I
Albert I was King of Germany and ruler of Austria for a decade on either side of the turn of the 14th Century. His reign came to a violent end.

Rudolf II
Rudolf II was King of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor for a time in the late 16th Century and early 17th Century. He was born in Vienna and ruled Austria as well but only for a short time.

Frederick III: Duke of Austria
Frederick III was Duke of Austria and Styria for more than two decades in the 14th Century, sharing power with two of his brothers. He won selection as Holy Roman Emperor for a time but then lost it again, retiring to rule Austria in peace.

Albert II: Duke of Austria
Albert II was Duke of Austria and Styria for more than two decades in the 14th Century, sharing power with his brother Otto. With his mind on succession, Albert established the Albertinian House Rule, stipulating that the principle of primogeniture (the right of the firstborn child–and, ideally, son–to inherit his father's main estate, lands, and titles) should apply.

Rudolf IV: Duke of Austria
Rudolf IV was Duke of Austria and Styria for seven years in the mid-14th Century. Denied a role as an elector for choosing the Holy Roman Emperor, Rudolf issued the Privilegium maius, a series of "found" documents that elevated Austria to the status of an archduchy and, in the duke's minds, deserving of elector status.

Albert III: Duke of Austria
Albert III was Duke of Austria for three decades in the 14th Century, sharing power with his brother Leopold.

Albert IV: Duke of Austria
Albert IV was Duke of Austria for nine years on either side of the start of the 15th Century.

Albert V: Duke of Austria
Albert the Magnanimous was one of his handful of titles. He was also King of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor. Among his prime achievements were the ending of private warfare and feuds and the division of Germany into administrative circles, from which his successors benefited much more than he did.

Ladislaus: Duke of Austria
Ladislaus was Duke of Austria and King of Bohemia, Croatia, and Hungary for many years in the 15th Century. He was the last Duke of Austria.

Austria was ruled for an extended period of time, and at various intervals, by a series of Holy Roman Emperors.

Holy Roman Empress Maria Theresa

Maria Theresa: Empress of Austria
Maria Theresa (left) was Holy Roman Empress for four decades in the 18th Century, surviving a devastating war over her succession and ruling over a period of great reform.

Joseph II: Ruler of Austria
The second husband of Maria Theresa, he was Holy Roman Emperor in his own right after she died, becoming a proponent of enlightened absolutism.

Leopold II: Ruler of Austria
Succeeded his brother on the thrones of Austria and the Holy Roman Empire. His desire to reverse the enlightened policies of his predecessor led to deep discontent in the country and resulted in the enmity of revolutionary France.

Francis II: Ruler of Austria
Son of Leopold II, he was the last Holy Roman Emperor and the last Archduke of Austria. He took command of troops fighting in the coalition wars against France. In the middle of it all, he declared himself the first Emperor of Austria. His most famous advisor was Klemens von Metternich.

Ferdinand I: Emperor of Austria
Ferdinand I was Emperor of Austria for more than a dozen years in the 19th Century, giving way in the wake of the revolutionary fervor that swept many European countries in the middle of the century.

Franz Josef: Emperor of Austria
Franz Josef was Austrian emperor from 1848 to 1916. During that time, he presided over a large number of changes in his homeland, including the advent of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the devastation of World War I.

The Austro-Hungarian Empire
The Austro-Hungarian Empire was in existence for just more than 50 years.

Karl: Emperor of Austria-Hungary
Karl I was the last emperor of Austria-Hungary. He reigned for nearly two years, in the waning days of World War I.

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