The European War After Pearl Harbor

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• Part 2: The Long Struggle
Part 3: Victory and Dark Secrets

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Part 1: Axis and Allies

By the time the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor, the success of the German advance into the Soviet Union was in question. Soviet troops had stopped the German advance on Moscow, and the bitter Russian winter had set in. German troops died by the hundreds.

On December 8, 1941, one day after the Pearl Harbor attack, the United States and Britain declared war on Japan. Three days later, Germany declared war on the U.S.

The year of 1942 was a dark one for the Allies. Germany continued its air raids of British cities. Italian forces patrolled new gains in the Mediterranean area. Axis forces seemed to be winning everywhere, even in the Soviet Union.

In the summer, German troops were carving their way through southern Russia, making their way toward the giant city of Stalingrad. The battle raged through the winter until February, 1943, when German troops surrendered. The invasion of the Soviet union was effectively over.

Meanwhile, the Germans were ruling North Africa. Under the command of field marshal Erwin Rommel, German tanks and troops were running wild, capturing large oil fields and a few countries in the process. It wasn't until 1943 that the Allies won some victories in North Africa.

British troops under field marshal Bernard Montgomery and American troops under General George Patton defeated Rommel and liberated North Africa. Rommel returned to Europe.

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Social Studies for Kids
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David White