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• Ptolemy
Julius Caesar
Marc Antony


Definition: Name of seven pharaohs. The most famous is Cleopatra VII, the last Pharaoh of Egypt. She came to power at age 15, married to her brother, Ptolemy XIII, also pharaoh. The two began a civil war in 48 B.C. With the aid of the Roman leader Julius Caesar, Cleopatra defeated her brother and kept the throne, this time sharing it with another brother, Ptolemy XIV, to whom she was not married. She went with Caesar to Rome and had a child soon after, naming it Caesarion. After Caesar's murder in 44, Cleopatra returned to Egypt. She courted the support of Caesar's ally, Marc Antony, and won his favor as well. She threw all her military support behind Antony in his war against Octavian, Caesar's adopted son, but it wasn't enough. Octavian and his allies defeated Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31. Rather than be captured, they fled to Egypt and died separately. They were buried together. Soon after, Rome conquered Egypt.

Related Resources:
Cleopatra has her own place in Egyptian history. Was she really beautiful? Did she really poison herself? Find out here.

Ancient Egypt
Find out more about the Land of the Nile.

Elsewhere on the Web:
Cleopatra: Her Life
Read all about the famous queen, the last of the pharaohs

Cleopatra Timeline
Match the events to the dates in this helpful timeline

Stories of Cleopatra
More on the famous queen

The Glory of Cleopatra
Read about her riches

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